Saturday, November 30, 2013

St. Andrew's Day

The flag of Scotland featuring St. Andrew's Saltire
     Today is St. Andrew's Day, and it is the national holiday of Scotland.

     Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland - one of the four patron saints of the British or Anglo-Celtic Isles (with the other ones being St. David for Wales, St. Patrick for Ireland, and St. George for England).

Carving of St. Andrew at the National Museum of Scotland

     He was a Galilean fisherman, who according to the New Testament was a brother of Simon Peter. He was also a disciple of St. John the Baptist, whose testimony led him and his brother to become disciples of Jesus Christ. As such, Andrew was present at many important events in the New Testament, including the Last Supper, and he is credited with preaching the word of God across Greece and Asia Minor during the 1st Century. According to tradition, Andrew also founded a diocese in  Byzantium that would eventually become the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. He was crucified by the Romans in the city if Patras, Greece on an X-shaped cross (Crux decussata or Saltire). The choice of the Saltire was supposedly made by Andrew because he believed himself to be unworthy of being crucified on the same type of cross on which Christ was crucified. Nonetheless, Andrew became a Christian martyr and a saint.

     St. Andrew became the venerated patron saint of many countries and institutions, including Russia, Ukraine, Russia, Greece, Romania, and the Order of the Golden Fleece.

     With regard to Scotland, legend tells us that in 832 a Pictish kingÓengus II – led an army of Picts and Scots into battle against a larger army of Angles (one of the early English peoples) under King Æthelstan, and vowed to make Saint Andrew the patron saint of Scotland if his armies won the battle. On the day of the battle, a white diagonal cross appeared to take shape in the clouds against the blue sky, emboldening the soldiers under Óengus with divine inspiration, and leading them to victory. Saint Andrew then became Scotland’s patron saint, and a its flag (and eventually the Union Flag for the United Kingdom) features a white saltire on a blue field.

Half and half: Scotland's flag provides one-third of the
Union Flag for the United Kingdom. The other two-thirds are
St. George's Cross (for England) and St. Patrick's Cross (for Ireland).

     St. Andrew has also become a place name in several locations in Scotland, including the town of St. Andrews. It is said that a Greek monk by the name of St. Rule was bringing some of saint's remains to Scotland when he got shipwrecked off the coast of a settlement where a church had been built to store the remains, and that St. Andrew's grew from that settlement. It is the home of the University of St. Andrew's which was attended by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (or the Earl and Countess of Strathearn as they are known in Scotland).

St. Andrews, Scotland, UK
© Peter Gordon

     Festivals of celebration for St. Andrew's Day have occurred in traditions going back as far as the reign of King Malcolm III, but it was only in 2006 that the day became an official bank (or public) holiday in Scotland under legislation passed by the devolved Scottish Parliament which was given Royal Assent by Queen Elizabeth.

A Pipe and Drum band marches in a parade for St. Andrew's Day in Inverness.

     November 30th is also the date of Barbadian independence, and it is the beginning of a series of winter festivals in Scotland, which culminate on January 25th with Burns Night.

     Throughout Scotland, the day is marked by a celebration of Scottish culture, including traditional food, music, and dances. There are special events at Scottish schools, including storytelling, writing tales, cooking meals, and playing bagpipes. This year, the Queen's Gallery of art at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh (the British monarch's official residence in Scotland) is open free of charge to the public, and features an array of activities for people of all ages to participate.

Palace of Holyroodhouse
© Kim Traynor

     However, the people of Scotland may be forgiven for having a more solemn observance this year due to the tragedy that recently occurred in Glasgow (Scotland's largest city and the UK's fourth-largest city) in which a helicopter crashed into a pub where numerous casualties are feared. My personal thoughts and prayers are with the people affected by this unfortunate incident.

UPDATE: The Queen has released the following statement to the Lord Provost of Glasgow:

I was saddened to learn of the dreadful helicopter crash in Glasgow last night.

My thoughts and prayers are with those who have been bereaved or injured.

I send my thanks to the emergency services and to everyone who helped with the rescue.


30 November 2013

Photo Credit: Kim Traynor via Wikimedia Commons cc, Peter Gordon via Geograph cc, Kim Traynor via Wikimedia Commons cc

Thursday, November 28, 2013


The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth (1914) By Jennie A. Brownscombe
     Thanksgiving Day is not observed in the United Kingdom or any of the Commonwealth realms. It is however, a day that we Americans give thanks for good fortune in our lives, just as the English settlers in Plymouth had done after their first harvest with the assistance of the local Native American population.

     For this writer, Thanksgiving is a day reflection, prayer, and spending time with family. With the world running at an ever more dizzying pace, it is good to have holidays such as this one. Sometimes, we do need to slow down and think about our lives, what we are thankful for, and why. I am certainly thankful for my life and good health, as well as thankful for creating this blog and being able to inform people about the monarchy and to give my views and opinions about it, and I am thankful for the people who are reading it.

     With that said, here is George Washington's proclamation of our first Thanksgiving in 1789:

Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor, and whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me "to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness."

Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be. That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks, for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a Nation, for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his providence, which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war, for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed, for the peaceable and rational manner, in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed; and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.

And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions, to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually, to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed, to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shown kindness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord. To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the encrease of science among them and Us, and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.
Given under my hand at the City of New York the third day of October in the year of our Lord 1789.

I do not believe that most people can find disagreement with such profound words.

     Happy Thanksgiving Day!

Saturday, November 23, 2013

The Queen's Dedication of the Kennedy Memorial

     For my full article regarding Kennedy and the memorial in his honor in the UK, please click here.    

     In this video, newsreel footage from the dedication of the the Kennedy Memorial in Runnymede, England, United Kingdom on May 14, 1965 - fifteen days before what would have been President John F. Kennedy's 48th birthday. 

     The video begins with Jacqueline Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Jr., Caroline Kennedy, and other members of the Kennedy family arriving at the site. Then the Queen and Prince Philip arrive with the Kennedy's in a receiving line to meet them. The dedication party then walks up the steps to view the memorial.

     At the stand for dignitaries, the Queen gives her speech to dedicate the memorial. Unfortunately, this video is only showing parts of the speech. In one part, she remarks on how the President and his family have had ties to Britain - going back to period leading up to World War II when his father Joseph P. Kennedy was the American ambassador to the United Kingdom (Court of St. James) and when the future President wrote his book about Britain's predicament in facing Hitler and the Nazi's during the 1930's, Why England Slept. 

     This video also shows the Queen making references to the fact that President Kennedy's older brother, Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., had died in a plane explosion over East Suffolk while on a mission as a naval aviator during the war, and that his sister Kathleen was buried in Britain.

     Lastly, the Queen is heard giving her closing remarks, in which she bequeaths the land to the United States in memory of President Kennedy.

Friday, November 22, 2013

Remembering JFK

President John F. Kennedy
     Fifty years today on November 22, 1963, President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. The death of Jack Kennedy was a tragedy for the United States, and indeed for the world.

President and Jacqueline Kennedy posing with the
Queen and Prince Philip at Buckingham Palace
     Two years earlier, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip hosted President Kennedy and Jacqueline Kennedy at a dinner at Buckingham Palace. It was private occasion, but nonetheless contained much of the pomp seen at state dinners.

     At the time of the assassination, the Queen was pregnant with Prince Edward, and so the Duke of Edinburgh was sent to represent her at Kennedy's state funeral in Washington.

     Following the tragedy, the Kennedy Memorial Trust was set up to sponsor scholarships for British post-graduate students to attend Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as well as to establish a permanent memorial to President Kennedy in the United Kingdom. 

     On May 14, 1965, the Queen and Jacqueline Kennedy unveiled the John F. Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede, near the site were King John of England had signed Magna Carta in 1215. Among those in attendance were Caroline and John F. Kennedy, Jr., Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York, Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts, other members of the Kennedy family, Prince Philip, UK Prime Minister Harold Wilson, US Secretary of State Dean Rusk (representing President Lyndon B. Johnson), and Lord Harlech - Chairman of the Kennedy Memorial Trust. 

     The memorial consists of a Portland stone bearing the following inscription:

'This acre of English ground was given to the United States of America by the people of Britain in memory of John F. Kennedy, born 19th May, 1917: President of the United States 1961-63: died by an assassin’s hand 22nd November,1963. 

"Let every National know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend or oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty": from the inaugural address of President Kennedy, January 1961.' 

Leading to the memorial is a 50-step pathway, and it also contains a hawthorn tree and an American scarlet oak. The sight was once owned by the Crown, but is now United States property, and was chosen to mark Kennedy's dedication to the rights and liberties of all people, the foundations of which were established at Runnymede.

John F. Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede, which was designed by Geoffrey Jellicoe

     At the dedication ceremony, the Queen made the following address:

"Here at Runnymede 750 years ago Magna Carta was signed. Among our earliest Statutes, it has rightly been regarded as the cornerstone of those liberties which later became enshrined in our system of democratic government under the rule of law.

This is a part of the heritage which the people of the United States of America share with us. Therefore it is altogether fitting that this should be the site of Britain’s memorial to the late President John F. Kennedy, for, as leader of his great nation, he championed liberty in an age when its very foundations were being threatened on a universal scale.

We all recall how he welcomed this challenge and gloried in the fact that to his generation had been given the task of defending liberty in such a time of trial. His readiness to shoulder the burden and the passionate enthusiasm which he brought to his labours gave courage, inspiration, and, above all, new hope not only to Americans but to all America’s friends.

Nowhere was this more true than here in these Islands. With all their hearts, my people shared his triumphs, grieved at his reverses and wept at his death.

President Kennedy, together with his family, had many ties with our country. He and they lived among us in that doom-laden period which led up to the outbreak of war. The experience of those days led him to write, when still a young man, a most perceptive analysis of the predicament in which Britain found herself. Ever after he maintained a deep and steady interest in the affairs of this nation whose history and literature he knew and loved so well. His elder brother, flying from these shored on a hazardous mission, was killed in our common struggle against the evil forces of a cruel tyranny. A dearly-loved sister lies buried in an English churchyard. Bonds like these cannot be broken and his abiding affection for Britain engendered an equal response from this side of the Atlantic.

The unprecedented intensity of that wave of grief, mixed with something akin to despair, which swept over our people at the news of President Kennedy’s assassination, was a measure of the extent to which we recognised what he had already accomplished, and of the high hopes that rode with him in a future that was not to be.

He was a man valiant in war, but no one understood better than he that, if total war were to come again, all the finest achievements of the human race would be utterly consumed in the nuclear holocaust. He therefore sought tenaciously for a peace which, as he put it, would enable “men and nations to grow and to hope and to build a better life for their children – not merely peace for Americans, but peace for all men and women; not merely peace in our time but peace for all time.”

Abroad, peace for a shrinking world; at home, a just and compassionate society. These were the themes of his Presidency. But it is his own example as a man that we remember today; his courage, both moral and physical; his dedication to public service; the distinction of heart and mind, the joyful enthusiasm, the wit and style which he brought to all he did; his love of liberty and of his fellow men. All these will continue to inspire us and the generations who succeed us and all those who share the noble traditions of freemen evoked by the name of Runnymede.

This acre of English soil is now bequeathed in perpetuity to the American people in memory of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy who in death my people still mourn and whom in life they loved and admired."

Close-up of the inscription.

     For this author, President Kennedy represents much of what was - and still is - great about America, and the fact that there is a memorial him in Britain that was unveiled by the Queen speaks to power of the Special Relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom. 

     It is unfortunate that we did not see more of President Kennedy, and of what he could have done to lead us to a better and more peaceful future.
     May his Eternal Flame continue to shine brightly.

Photo Credit: Ian Taylor via Geograph cc, Graham Horn via Geograph cc

Monday, November 18, 2013

Prince Charles, CHOGM, and the next Head of the Commonwealth

     Prince Charles took yet another step in his apprenticeship as his mother’s heir. 

     On November 15th, the day after he celebrated his 65th birthday, he opened the 2013 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Colombo, Sri Lanka in the place of the Queen, who is Head of the Commonwealth.

     CHOGM has its origins in the First Colonial Conference of 1887, at which there was a gathering of the leaders from the self-governing dominions within the British Empire. From
Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference, 1944.
Image Source: Library and Archives Canada
1907, they became known as Imperial Conferences, but as the dominions became independent, the word “imperial” was dropped, and from 1944 to 1969, the meetings became known as the Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference. Through the 1960’s the rapid process of decolonization resulted in an influx of former colonies becoming Commonwealth members – many of them with elected presidents or hereditary monarchs of their own, which meant that the term “prime ministers’” no longer applied to some leaders. The result was that the meetings – which had been held in London – began to rotate to other Commonwealth cities beginning with Singapore in 1971, and in that same year, the name was changed for the last time to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.

     The purpose of the meetings is to discuss critical issues affecting individual member states and the wider Commonwealth, and to create common policies and solutions to deal with them. Among the issues brought up at this summit were the concerns over human rights in Sri Lanka, as well as electoral crisis in the Maldives.

     With regard to Sri Lanka, the island nation has been dogged by allegations of human rights abuse during and after its 27 year civil war, which ended in 2009. The government has been particularly accused of war crimes against the ethnic Tamil population in the northern part of the island, as well as intimidating journalists. President Mahinda Rajapaksa has denied such allegations, but has refused international inquires, believing that such investigations are an intrusion into domestic affairs. Commonwealth leaders from Canada, Mauritus, and India - the largest Commonwealth country - boycotted the summit in protest, but others such as British Prime Minister David Cameron have opted to engage with Sri Lanka in addressing such issues. South Africa's president, Jacob Zuma, shared lessons on political and social reconciliation to the government, citing his own country's work toward reconciling its black majority and white minority. 

     In doing what Prime Minister Cameron and President Zuma did, they showed how these summits can be used resolve critical issues, as well as to provide a forum for addressing the core values and goals of the organization, and to renew the traditional bonds between these countries of the old Empire.

     At the summits, there are two main sessions: the executive sessions and the retreats. Executive sessions are formal business gatherings for the heads of government at which notes are taken and a wide group of people take part and/or observe. Retreats are informal gatherings at which only the heads of government, their spouses, and one other person (security, personal aide, other government official, etc.) may attend, and it is here where the attendees can speak frankly and openly without advisors, so that issues may be resolved. 

     Also at CHOGM meetings are cultural and social events designed to involve the local population of the host country, as well as civic society organizations such as the Commonwealth Family that help to forge better links and greater understanding among Commonwealth peoples. There are also other meetings outside of the regular proceedings, such as the gathering of foreign ministers (officials in charge of foreign policy), the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group, and Commonwealth Business Council.

Head of the Commonwealth

     The Prince of Wales’s presence at the CHOGM is significant because it is the first time that he has represented the Queen in her role as Head of the Commonwealth at these meetings, which the Queen has not missed since 1971.

     Back then, she missed that meeting on the advice of British Prime Minister Edward Heath because of a dispute over Britain 
The Queen attending the 2011
CHOGM in Perth, Australia.
selling arms to South Africa. This time, Palace officials stated back in March that the Queen’s absence was the result of reviewing “long-haul” traveling taken by her. It was, probably for the first time, an acknowledgment that the Queen’s advancing age will limit her capacity to carry out certain engagements, especially ones that require traveling over long distances. This does not necessarily mean that the Queen will never again travel to destinations such as Australia and Canada, but it does mean that trips that were once taken without reservation are now going to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, and that other members of the royal family will be expected to deputize for her. 

     For Prince Charles, it was his highest profile appearance in the Queen’s stead. It continued a "transitioning" process by which the Prince performs more of the Queen's ceremonial duties, and it took place at the organization that the Queen holds dear to her heart: the Commonwealth of Nations. Elizabeth regards this role as one of her most important, as she and the Commonwealth have grown together. She takes the role seriously and has a passionate interest in Commonwealth affairs. As such, she has been credited as being the glue that has kept the organization – comprising 53 countries and 2.245 billion people – together for the past six decades.

The Commonwealth of Nations. The organization spans all of the continents and covers over 11,566,870 square miles, almost a quarter of the land area across the world. It has an estimated population of 2.245 billion, almost a third of the world population, and in 2012, it produced a nominal GDP of $9.767 trillion, representing 15% of the world GDP when measured in purchasing power parity (PPP). When taken as a whole, the Commonwealth represents the second largest nominal GDP and GDP PPP in the world.

     Born from the days of Empire, the Commonwealth was gradually created as colonies gained self-governance
No crowns or royal shields. The Commonwealth flag
represents the fact that the Commonwealth is not a
hereditary Crown institution, and that being
Head of the Commonwealth is separate and
distinct from that of being monarch.
and independence from London. Up to 1949, British monarchs evolved from being the unitary head of the Empire to being the head of state of all independent countries within the British Commonwealth of Nations. In that year, Ireland voted to become a republic, an action which automatically severed its membership in the organization, and India was expressing republican sentiments as well, but did not want to break all ties with the British monarch and the other Commonwealth countries. This resulted in new membership criteria being drawn up in London which allowed members to be republics, so long as they recognized King George VI – the present Queen’s father – as Head of the Commonwealth. The London Declaration also renamed the organization as the Commonwealth of Nations, marking the birth of the “New Commonwealth” which became predominately composed of countries which no longer owed allegiance to the Crown, but accepted the monarch as “a symbol of the free association of [the] independent member nations.”

     But according to Robert Hardman, no one said anything about passing the title on. When Elizabeth II succeeded her father in 1952, the Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, sent her a telegram welcoming her as Head of the Commonwealth, and everyone simply followed along (which technically means that this was the only position to which Elizabeth was “elected”). Back then, it was probably difficult to think of anyone else succeeding to that title. Britain still had many imperial possessions around the world in 1952, and there were probably conflations between the Empire and the Commonwealth, with many people believing that the new Queen ought to have the same international standing as her predecessors.

     61 years on, Elizabeth II has certainly enjoyed an international status affording to few other world leaders thanks to her role in
The personal flag of Elizabeth II which she uses in her role as
Head of the Commonwealth, especially when traveling in
Commonwealth countries that are not realms of the Crown.
the Commonwealth. Most Commonwealth countries and leaders have expressed their appreciation for the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. They have direct lines of communication to the Queen (meaning that they do not have to go through the British government), and she has visited almost every Commonwealth country. The leaders also appreciate the fact that she takes a keen interest in the affairs of the organization as well as individual member states, but upon the Queen’s death, they will have to decide who will succeed to the title. Given the historic link between the Crown and the Commonwealth, it is easy to assume that Prince Charles will be selected to succeed his mother, but again, this is not a given.

     The Prince of Wales’s appearance at the CHOGM can therefore be seen as preparing the ground for him to succeed to his mother’s title. His address opening the summit was not so much a campaign speech as it was a declaration of his hopes and aspirations for the future of the Commonwealth. The speech was also his own statement of support for the organization, which he praised for its ability to evolve to meet the needs of its members. Charles called on the nations of the Commonwealth to increase cooperation in creating solutions to vital issues such as poverty, climate change, economic development, and connectivity among people. He invoked the aforementioned Jawaharlal Nehru (with whom he shares a birthday), who believed that the Commonwealth ought to provide a “touch of healing” to solving the problems facing the modern world. Avoiding any direct mention of the political issues currently swirling around Sri Lanka, the Prince instead praised the island nation for its strength and character following the 2004 tsunami.

     Respecting the delicate balance of tense political issues is part of the job for the Head of the Commonwealth, who must represent unity and be above the fractious political fray. While the politicians in attendance (including Prime Minister Cameron) were seen jeered and heckled by some protesters, Charles and Camilla received a warm reception. The closest encounter with politics occurred behind the scenes in the form of the one-on-one discussions the Prince had with each of the prime ministers and presidents – just as the Queen would do if she had been there.

     Later at the banquet – held in a ballroom named the King’s Court – Prince Charles shared his personal connections with the Commonwealth and its people, such as when Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana gave Charles a set of bow-and-arrows, and he had the audience in laughter over a story about water-skiing with Dom Mintoff from Malta (which was announced as the host for the next CHOGM in 2015).

     The banquet and the opening ceremony also featured the appearance of the Commonwealth Mace, a gift given to the Queen by the Royal Anniversary Trust in 1992 upon the occasion of the 40th year of her accession. With 18 karats of gold and the enameled flags of the Commonwealth countries decorating it, the mace appears to represent the power of the Crown at an organization where the top job is technically not a Crown office.

     Nevertheless, before this summit, leaders were already expressing some support for continuing the link with the Crown.
Julia Gilliard, the Queen's 12th Australian
Prime Minister, who was also the first female
prime minister of the country.
Back in March, the then Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gilliard, gave her own tribute to the Queen, and stated that she was “sure the Queen’s successor as monarch will one day serve as Head of the Commonwealth with the same distinction as Her Majesty has done.” On Commonwealth Day that month, Commonwealth Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma acknowledged the Queen’s service as the Head of the Commonwealth, applauded Charles’ role in the organization, and elaborated on “a foundation of friendship and continuity” in association with the royal family. He also stated that the “Crown has symbolized the free association of our nations and our peoples.” In her response, the Queen said that she appreciated the “kind and generous sentiments, and for [the] thoughtful words about the link between the Crown and the Commonwealth and its enduring value.” At the Commonwealth banquet,
Sharma went on to say that the support given by Prince Charles “deepens the Commonwealth’s links to the Crown. Such heartfelt enthusiasm brings a foundation of friendship and continuity.”

     The Commonwealth – this club of former imperial relations means a lot to the Queen, who has done much to keep it together in 
Kamalesh Sharma, the
Commonwealth Secretary-General.
spite of squabbles between members (especially during the disputes with South Africa's apartheid policy). The bi-annual summit helps to bring the peoples of the far-flung Commonwealth together and to achieve greater cooperation and understanding amongst each other, resulting in ever-closer relationships among peoples and their respective countries. It is also a celebration of commonly-shared aspirations and values, as well as the hopes for a brighter future in voluntary association with one-another. It is the Queen, as Head of the Commonwealth, who helps to provide a sense of stability and continuity for the organization and its people, which helps to strengthen deep bonds.
Commonwealth leaders have expressed their desire to stay together and to use the organization as a vehicle for providing assistance to countries like Sri Lanka that are through political and social difficulties.

     And with his presence at the CHOGM, Charles may have gone a long way in carrying on his mother’s legacy by securing the position of Head of the Commonwealth when his time comes.

Photo Credit: GovernmentZA via Flickr cc, Bastin8 via Wikimedia Commons cc, Foreign and Commonwealth Office via Flickr cc, DilatoryRevolution via Wikimedia Commons cc  

  • Hardman, Robert. Her Majesty: Queen Elizabeth and Her Court. New York: Pegasus Books. 2012. Print (Page 336).